**Culinary Math**is more complex than basic mathematics, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and dividing. Culinary math refers to the calculation of converting measurements, and temperature with the addition of basic mathematics. An essential tool used when calculating baking percentage, converting units, and other information will also include measuring cups and spoons, kitchen scales, and thermometers. Equipment and tools used in the kitchen will need to be converted for precise measurements of ingredients when increasing or decreasing the desired yield of a formula, not a recipe. Some basic culinary math skills include:

: Used for both whole numbers and decimals. You need addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, converting units, and ratios.**Computation**: Multiplying and dividing whole numbers into fractions**Fractions**: Area, volume, and shapes.__Geometry__

The terms and abbreviations below are apart of the

*Imperial System*, also known as U.S System. The imperial system is a measurement system that uses pounds and ounces for weight/mass. Volume is measured by using pint(s), quart(s), gallon(s), and fluid ounces, and the temperature in Fahrenheit. When the total yield is changed, transitioning a recipe to a formula will play a vital role in a precise outcome. A

*formula*is in which the scaling of an ingredient is converted to the exact weight. Useful measurements to keep in mind includes:

**Abbreviations**- Teaspoons (Tsp)
- Tablespoons (Tbsp.)
- Ounces (Oz.)
- Fluid Ounces (FL oz.)
- Cups (C)
- Pint (pt.)
- Quart (qt.)
- Pound(s) (Lb. Lbs. or #)

*Dash*= Less than 1/8 teaspoon Eight Ounces = One Cup

3 Teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon Two Cups (16 ounces) = One Pint (One Lb.)

2 Tablespoons = One Ounce Four Cups (Two Pints) = One Quart (32 Ounces)

4 Tablespoons = Two Ounces Two Quarts (Four Pints) = ½ Gallon (64 Ounces)

8 Tablespoons = Four Ounces Four Quarts (128 Ounces) = One Gallon

Four Ounces = ½ Cup

Using the correct piece of equipment to scale or measure your ingredients in a recipe is essential. Here is something important to remember:

**Measured by mass.**

__Dry Ingredients__:**Measured by volume.**

__Liquid Ingredients__:__Here's a Tip__

For some, it’s challenging to remember common equivalents in the U.S. System while working in the kitchen. Here is a trick I learned, converting one Cup (eight ounces), to one gallon (one-hundred and twenty-eight ounces). You will need a sheet of folder paper and a writing utensil. Follow the instructions that are given, using the pictures below as a guide.

This piece of paper now represents a guide to converting ounces to pints (1 lb.), ounces and pints to quarts, and all three units into a gallon. Every square represents One Cup (8 Ounces). Every time you unfold it, you’ll notice the pattern on how one Cup is converted to the next mass or volume size. This method can be used to remember the measurements of scaling both dry and liquid ingredients.

- Fold the sheet the paper horizontally in half.
- Fold the sheet of paper horizontally in half again.
- Fold the sheet of paper, this time, vertically in half. Repeat this step one more time. You should have a small square. Label the square:
**1 Cup (8 ounces)** - Open up the square in half. You should now have two squares aligned vertically. In the center, label:
**1 Pint, 2 Cups, 16 ounces (1 lbs.)** - Open the paper again. You should now have four squares aligned vertically. In the center, label:
**One Quart, 4 Cups, 2 lbs., 32 ounces.** - Finally, open up the sheet of paper all the way. You will have a total of 16 squares. Label the center:
**1 Gallon, 4 Quarts, 8 lbs., 128 ounces.**

This piece of paper now represents a guide to converting ounces to pints (1 lb.), ounces and pints to quarts, and all three units into a gallon. Every square represents One Cup (8 Ounces). Every time you unfold it, you’ll notice the pattern on how one Cup is converted to the next mass or volume size. This method can be used to remember the measurements of scaling both dry and liquid ingredients.

__System Conversions__

__System Conversions__

**Metric Conversion**is another method used to identify the weight and volume of the ingredients being used when preparing a dish. Metric conversion begins with the understanding use of the

__that was developed by the French and is used around the world. The metric system is a decimal system in which the basic weight, volume, and Fahrenheit are described as grams (g), milliliters (ml), and Celsius (C). Converting the metric to the imperial system, (and vis versa), are done by using the following formulas:__

*M**etric System*

__Converting Mass__**Multiple ___ Ounces by 28.35 = ___ Grams (imperial to metric)**

Divide ___ Grams by 28.35 = ___ Ounces (metric to imperial)

Multiple ___ Pounds by 453.59 = ___ Grams (imperial to metric)

Divide ___ Grams by 28.35 = ___ Ounces (metric to imperial)

Multiple ___ Pounds by 453.59 = ___ Grams (imperial to metric)

**Divide ___ Grams by 453.59 = ___ Pounds (metric to imperial)**

__Converting Volume__**Multiply ___ Fluid Ounces by 29.574 = ___ Milliliters (imperial to metric)**

**Divide ___ Milliliters by 29.574 = ___ Fluid Ounces (metric to imperial)**

__Converting Temperature__**(___°F - 32) = ___ divide by 1.8 = ___°C (imperial to metric)**

**(___°C multiple by 1.8) + 32 = ___°F (metric to imperial)**